Detection of Host Biomarkers Using Toehold Switches

Detection of Host Biomarkers Using Toehold Switches

Detection of Host Biomarkers Using Toehold Switches

Host biomarkers are derived from the body's response to infection. Infection is a common clinical disease with high morbidity and mortality. Early detection of infection in critically ill patients and initiation of appropriate treatment are key to reducing morbidity and mortality. However, early identification and accurate assessment of bacterial and viral infections are well-recognized challenges. In recent years, host biomarkers have become the key to identifying the type of infection. In addition to being used as identification markers for infection types, host biomarkers can also be used as diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic markers for community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, and other diseases. Therefore, the detection of host biomarkers is very important for medical research. 

Conventional Testing Methods

Reliable host biomarker detection methods can help to accurately identify infection and reflect disease progression in real-time. Typically, host biomarkers can be detected by protein chip screening combined with ELISA. More reliable methods such as molecular biology, transcriptomics, and metabolomics are also frequently used for the detection of host biomarkers. In the past decade, several biosensors have also been developed for the detection of host biomarkers. However, these methods have disadvantages such as high cost, long waiting time, and complicated operation.

Toehold Switches in Host Biomarkers Detection

Biomarkers based on host invasion of pathogens can reflect disease progression in real-time, predict possible pathogenic microorganisms, and guide clinical medication and prognosis judgment. Furthermore, host biomarkers may also be a promising stratification tool for screening patients who need enhanced surveillance and benefit from new interventions. Toehold switches, as an emerging and programmable gene manipulation element, can precisely detect various molecules. This feature has aroused the interest of many researchers, who applied it in biosynthesis to develop better sensors for host biomarker detection. As a world-class biological company, CD BioSciences is also engaged in the development of biosensors based on toehold switches for host biomarkers.

The Development Services We Can Provide Based on Toehold Switches

To provide support to scholars engaged in medical research such as infection and immunity and technicians engaged in the development of diagnostic methods, CD BioSciences has been improving the research and development capabilities and expertise of the team. Currently, we can provide these researchers with toehold switches-based biosensor development services targeting host biomarkers. The main types of biosensor development we offer for host biomarkers are shown below.

Our Testing Services Based on the Toehold Switches Platform

Based on providing biosensor development services for host biomarkers based on toehold switches, we can also directly provide researchers with host biomarker detection services. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), human neutrophil apolipoprotein, interleukin-6, myxovirus resistance protein A, and a novel host protein combination marker (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand +Interferon-inducible protein-10+CRP) and a series of host biomarkers are the focus of our services. In general, the types of host biomarkers we currently cover can be grouped into the following categories.

  • Host biomarkers for differentiating bacterial and viral infections.
  • Host biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of the disease.

Advantages of Toehold Switches in Host Biomarkers Detection

  • Cell-free systems make testing safer.
  • The application of Toehold switches makes the detection cost lower.
  • Other components of the sensor are suitable for the detection of all host biomarkers.
  • The application of NASBA isothermal amplification technology makes the detection results more stable.

CD BioSciences has long been focusing on related applications of toehold switches. We can provide you with biosensor development services and detection services for host biomarkers based on toehold switches. If you are interested in the application of toehold switches in the detection of host biomarkers, please contact us directly.


  1. Takahashi, M.K.; et al. A low-cost paper-based synthetic biology platform for analyzing gut microbiota and host biomarkers. Nat Commun. 2018, 9(1): 3347.
  2. Takahashi, M.K.; et al. Cell-Free Paper-Based Analysis of Gut Microbiota and Host Biomarkers. Methods Mol Biol. 2022, 2433: 351-374.
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