Detection of Norovirus Using Toehold Switches

Detection of Norovirus Using Toehold Switches

Detection of Norovirus Using Toehold Switches

Norovirus is a single-stranded, righteous RNA virus that is highly infectious and rapidly transmissible, with rapid mutation, high environmental resistance, low infectious dose, short incubation period after infection, long detoxification time, and short immune protection time. Norovirus is transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route, but also by droplet transmission. Norovirus infection can occur throughout the year, especially in winter. Raw consumption of sea shellfish and oysters and other aquatic animals is the main cause of norovirus infection. Norovirus is responsible for 60-90% of the non-bacterial diarrhea cases in the United States each year. Norovirus has five genomes (GⅠ-GⅤ), of which GⅠ, GⅡ, and GⅣ can infect humans, while GⅢ and GⅤ infect cattle and rats, respectively. Norovirus has become one of the important public health problems worldwide, so it is imperative to develop a rapid and easy detection tool for norovirus.

Conventional Testing Methods

Real-time RT-PCR can detect viruses in multiple environmental samples through ORF1/ORF2, the most conserved region in the norovirus genome. The results of nucleic acid testing are accurate, but the disadvantage is that it requires higher equipment and personnel. Norovirus antigens are highly variable, and some genotypes have antigenic drift, which often makes ELISA detection less effective than expected. To avoid laboratory contamination, food, water, environmental samples, and patient specimens cannot be tested in the same laboratory and must be processed and tested in separate spaces. This makes routine testing for norovirus unaffordable in resource-poor regions.

Toehold Switches in Norovirus Detection

It is well known that toehold switches can use their hairpin structures and linked reporter genes to detect pathogens. It has been reported in the literature that designing specific toehold switch RNAs based on conserved gene sequences can rapidly and sensitively detect norovirus. At CD BioSciences, we leverage our advanced technology platform to introduce toehold switches into biosensors to develop devices capable of instant detection of norovirus.

The Development Services We Can Provide Based on Toehold Switches

The research and development of biosensors based on toehold switches is a current hot spot. At CD BioSciences, we are also continuously exploring the related application fields of toehold switches. Based on our rich experience, we can provide you with the development services of biosensors based on toehold switches for norovirus. At present, we mainly provide the following two sensor development services for norovirus.

Our Testing Services Based on the Toehold Switches Platform

Gastroenteritis caused by norovirus affects millions of people around the world each year. At CD BioSciences, we can provide fast and instant detection service for norovirus, that is, to provide norovirus detection service based on toehold switches for universities and research institutes engaged in norovirus-related research.

Advantages of Toehold Switches in Norovirus Detection

  • A low-cost test method that requires no laboratory equipment.
  • Easy to understand and use without expertise by displaying results calorimetrically.
  • Isothermal NASBA reaction provides detection sensitivity and shortens detection time.

CD BioSciences has a team of professionals working on toehold switches and an advanced toehold switches technology platform. We are constantly expanding our services and have provided technical support to several customers. We look forward to providing you with services for the development of toehold switches-based norovirus detection devices. If you are interested, please contact us directly.


  1. Ma, D.; et al. Low-cost detection of norovirus using paper-based cell-free systems and synbody-based viral enrichment. Synth Biol (Oxf). 2018, 3(1): ysy018.
  2. Wu, K.; Green, A.A. Detection of Norovirus Using Paper-Based Cell-Free Systems. Methods Mol Biol. 2022, 2433: 375-390.
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